Rouen Treasures

Rouen’s Old Market Square

Rouen was the most prolonged stay on our cathedral pilgrimage. It was a perfect home base with three unique Gothic churches, beautiful architecture around every corner, magnificent museums, a rich history, and a strategic location to explore other cathedrals. Staying in the hyper-center of the city immersed us in all these treasures.

The narrow medieval streets around our apartment with Église Saint-Patrice open for personal prayer

We stayed in a medieval building beautifully renovated and hosted by a thoughtful and kind gentleman. The apartment was small but adequate for the two of us, although being surrounded by other flats made us feel like we were staying in “The Aquarium” of the Quai des Orfèvres (the Paris police prefecture) in the Inspector Maigret series. But that’s what curtains are for.

On my first exploration of the neighborhood, I was eager to see the sixteenth-century church around the corner dedicated to Saint Patrick and built in both flamboyant Gothic and Renaissance styles. Its door was open, and I reverently entered to find a marvelously old place of worship currently in use. A woman entered after me to spend time in prayer. I left so I wouldn’t distract her, but eventually returned to marvel at this lovely building.

Église Saint-Patrice de Rouen

Very close to the apartment was the Rouen Museum of Fine Arts, a free museum we enjoyed on two occasions. As I mentioned in my last post, they have a gallery dedicated to the life of Joan of Arc, but their collection is extensive. I particularly liked the model of the Church of Saint-Maclou and the set of paintings of the twelve apostles by Nicolas Poussin. In these half-length portraits, each apostle is depicted with a different symbol of their martyrdom. They are considered to be one of Poussin’s masterpieces.

Rouen’s Museum of Fine Arts

Model of the Church of Saint-Maclou

Paintings from the set of the 12 Apostles by Nicolas Poussin

Close to the Fine Arts Museum is the Musée Le Secq des Tournelles, a museum of ironwork located in a former parish church dedicated to Saint Lawrence dating from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The church is defunct, but the collection in its gothic structure is terrific. Entrance is free, and we loved exploring the displays and the building.

Musée Le Secq des Tournelles

Musée Le Secq des Tournelles

Finally, I wanted to see the equestrian statue of Napoleon in front of the Town Hall. A cache of bronze, silver, and gold coins of Napoleon III was found in its pedestal when the statue was taken down for repairs in 2020. Since then, it has been expertly restored. Napoleon is a controversial figure, and there have been several movements to replace his effigy, but thankfully, a love for history has prevailed, and there it proudly stands today.

Equestrian statue of Napoleon in front of Rouen Town Hall with St. Ouen Abbey in the background

We scarcely partook of the treasures of Rouen. But we were privileged to delight in its offerings and use it as a launching pad to visit Chartres, Bayeux, and Mont-Saint-Michel, which will provide the material for my next few posts.

Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage

Joan’s Triumph

Jeanne d`Arc listening to her voices (Leon Francois Benouville)

In the “Translator’s Preface” of Mark Twain’s biography of Joan of Arc, we read these words:

“To arrive at a just estimate of a renowned man’s character one must judge it by the standards of his time, not ours. Judged by the standards of one century, the noblest characters of an earlier one lose much of their luster; judged by the standards of today, there is probably no illustrious man of four or five centuries ago whose character could meet the test at all points. But the character of Joan of Arc is unique. It can be measured by the standards of all times without misgiving or apprehension as to the result. Judged by any of them, it is still flawless, it is still ideally perfect; it still occupies the loftiest place possible to human attainment, a loftier one than has been reached by any other mere mortal.”

Historiated initial depicting Joan (dated to the second half of the 15th century, Archives Nationales, Paris. Image: Wikipedia

The Saint’s legacy is still felt in France (even if she is almost forgotten in the United States). Nowhere is this more true than in Rouen, the place of her martyrdom. A tall cross in the Old Market Square beside a church dedicated to her life marks her martyr’s pyre. The city hosts museums, monuments, exhibitions, festivals, street names, and works of art in her honor. Having recently come to revere her as a spiritual heroine made our visit to Rouen particularly special.

Le Bûcher de Jeanne d’Arc

Rouen’s Museum of Fine Arts has several art pieces depicting La Pucelle’s (the Maid’s) life, suffering, and death.

A gallery in Rouen’s Museum of Fine Arts dedicated to Joan of Arc.

Joan was treated with unusual cruelty for a woman of that time. She was not allowed to be imprisoned with other women and had to suffer with predatory men guarding her day and night; that may explain her insistence on wearing men’s clothing while captive.

Joan of Arc, Prisoner in Rouen (Pierre Henri Revoil)


Joan of Arc is Put into Prison (Anonymous) – 19th century painting.

Her relentless, brutal, and callous interlocutor, Bishop Cauchon, was unafraid to use corrupt means to effect her condemnation and demise. He was even able to forcibly extract an admission of guilt from the weary and ailing teenager, which she promptly renounced once she regained her presence of mind.

Joan of Arc Led to the Execution (Isidore Patrois)

A couple of decades after Joan’s martyrdom, the French expelled the English from France. The political situation demanded a re-examination of Joan’s condemnation, and it was determined after a thorough investigation that her judgment as a heretic was arbitrary and that she was a political prisoner unjustly executed. The verdict of her rehabilitation trial was announced in Rouen at Saint-Ouen Abbey with Joan’s family in attendance.


Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage


3:10 to Gothic

Rouen’s rich history is reflected in its magnificent architecture. A treasure trove of half-timbered, Renaissance, Baroque, Art Nouveau, and Gothic buildings dominate the cityscape. For history and architecture enthusiasts, Rouen does not disappoint. Within a ten-minute walk, you can encounter three outstanding Gothic churches.

The first of these Gothic masterpieces naturally is Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen, which I wrote about in my last post. But equally fascinating are Abbatiale Saint-Ouen (Saint-Ouen Abbey Church) and Église catholique Saint-Maclou (St. Maclou Catholic Church). Saint-Maclou is considered one of France’s best examples of the Flamboyant style. Saint-Ouen, as large as Rouen Cathedral, was also completed in the Flamboyant style in the 15th century. These beautiful examples of Gothic are only blocks away from the Cathedral.

Saint-Ouen Abbey Church


Church of Saint-Maclou

Developed in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, the Flamboyant Gothic style is characterized by double curves forming flame-like shapes in the bar tracery, ornamental ribs in the vaults, and tall narrow pointed arches and roofs. In general, it looks like an explosion of frill and lace. Although overwhelmingly beautiful, Lisa and I do not favor the style, and that is one factor that dissuaded us from making Rouen our main destination. Nonetheless, we enjoyed admiring these churches.

Saint-Ouen Abbey Church was originally part of an extensive Benedictine Abbey complex. Founded in the 6th century, it was one of the most important Benedictine monasteries in medieval Normandy, playing a significant role in religious and secular history. After Joan of Arc’s martyrdom in 1431, her conviction was posthumously investigated on appeal at the request of her family. Eventually, her conviction was overturned, and she was declared innocent. The verdict of her rehabilitation trial was announced at Saint-Ouen Abbey with Joan’s family in attendance.

The abbey was closed during the French Revolution, and the monks’ lodging and old abbey garden are now part of the City Hall of Rouen. Since the church has ceased regular religious services, there were no rows of chairs in the nave, which impressed on us the grand scale of the pillars and vaults. I understand the space is used for special events now, but it still had a transcendent effect on us.

Built during the transition from the Romanesque to the Gothic period, the smaller but no less beautiful Church of Saint-Maclou is considered a Gothic masterpiece. Its unique pentagonal form, five gabled porches arranged in a semi-circle, and beautifully carved Renaissance doors compel you to agree with its designation as a historical treasure.

Situated in a neighborhood of half-timbered buildings, it feels old but accessible, like a local parish church. We saw people reverently praying inside, making exploring the building a spiritual experience. The central crucifix lit up by light from the lantern tower inspires the church’s intended use as a place of worship. We were indeed blessed to partake in the uplifting atmosphere.


Church of Saint-Maclou Nave


Church of Saint-Maclou Lantern Tower

Rouen rewards its visitors with remarkable historical sites and architectural beauty, but with its trifecta of Gothic churches, its appeal to pilgrims like ourselves is simply unmatched.

Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage

Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen

The site on which Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen sits has hosted a church from at least the 4th century. The Cathedral has undergone multiple building projects since that period. As a result, the present structure has Early Gothic, Late Flamboyant, and Renaissance elements. An all-star cast of famous historical visitors graced the Cathedral with their presence. These include archbishop Rémy, son of Charles Martel, Charlemagne, the Viking leader Rollo, and William the Conqueror. Claude Monet forever memorialized the Cathedral by making over 30 paintings of the church. Its 19th-century iron spire made it the tallest building in the world for a time. And the Cathedral also has the unfortunate distinction of being hit twice by Allied bombs during World War 2.

Rouen Cathedral (Monet series) – images Wikipedia

Rouen’s Cathedral is a fantastic monument of history; maybe because it’s located in such a large city and an important tourist destination, it didn’t have the same contemplative atmosphere as the other cathedrals. The number of people wandering in and out, the extensive restoration, and the bombastic demonstration of the organ’s powerful voice made it feel more like a tourist site than a place of worship. I saw a confession schedule, but that didn’t change the feeling we were wandering around in a museum. Nonetheless, taking in the architecture, history, and grandeur was an unforgettable experience.

Some historical highlights of the Cathedral are the tombs of Rollo, the first Duke of Normandy, and Richard the Lion-Hearted, containing his actual heart. Stained glass windows are among its visual treasures from the 13th to the 16th centuries. The 15th-century stairway to the medieval library is a thing of beauty. However, we could not see the remains of the magnificent choir stalls from the 15th century due to the renovations (the upper portions were destroyed during the French Revolution).

Tomb with the heart of Richard the Lion-Hearted.

15th-century stairway to the medieval library.

The ambulatory has statues from the facade removed in the 19th century for restoration, with copies installed back in their place. The little bookstore inside the nave had an informative display about the Cathedral during the war.

We returned to visit the Cathedral on another occasion because it is a marvel regardless of the tourist trappings. We found the two other gothic churches in Rouen equally fascinating, which will be the topic of my next post.

Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage

Fifth Stop – Rouen

Rouen on the Seine (image – Wikimedia Commons)

Our brief visit to Beauvais and Cathédrale Saint-Pierre was a happy detour on our way to Rouen, the capital of Normandy. After Paris, Rouen is the third largest city in France and sits on the same river as Paris, the Seine. Its location near the English Channel makes it a prosperous port city and a major hub for trade and commerce.

When planning our cathedral pilgrimage, I first thought about staying in Chartres. I decided against that after I read that many of the city’s businesses are closed in the winter and about the possible lack of high-speed internet. Still thinking we would stay in one place on our trip, I turned my attention to Rouen due to its size, historical significance, and the fact that it is home to several Gothic churches, including a cathedral. Even after choosing to make our trip a multi-city adventure, we knew we would have to spend an extended time in Rouen.

Rouen is where Joan of Arc was imprisoned and martyred. But today, it celebrates her life through museums, monuments, exhibitions, festivals, street names, and works of art (and several businesses and restaurants bear her name).

The pyre marker of Joan of Arc (Le Bûcher de Jeanne d’Arc).

Mapping out our pilgrimage route, I included the stop in Beauvais right before arriving in Rouen so we could see the Cathedral from where Joan’s nemesis Bishop Cauchon hailed. Driving from Beauvais to Rouen is a relatively straight hour-and-a-half drive on a two-lane road winding through rolling hills, picturesque farms, and charming villages. We stopped at an Aldi near Rouen, where we could stock up for our stay before checking in to our Airbnb. We shopped for groceries while trying to avoid exposing our pathetic grasp of the language. We were successful and resumed our trek toward the old medieval section of the city.

Our apartment was located in the heart of the historic center in a medieval building. I wasn’t fully prepared for the traffic we encountered to get there; it wasn’t even the tourist season. Driving in the historic center is like driving in New York City but with medieval streets. I was grateful for the Peugeot’s camera and warning system. Rouen was the first real metropolis we visited. The parking garage for the apartment was like all inner city parking in Europe – tight, but I was glad to leave the car safely tucked away and navigate this beautiful city on foot.

Our medieval apartment in Rouen.

After meeting our landlord and hauling our luggage and groceries into our place, we were eager to visit the three Flamboyant Gothic churches, the free art museum just around the corner, and the Old Market Square, where Joan of Arc was burned at the stake. But we had a week and a half ahead of us, so we settled in and prepared to see some fantastic sites.

Rouen Cathedral – Flamboyant Gothic style.


Rouen’s Gros-Horloge – a 14th century astronomical clock.


Gargoyles on the Royal Palace (1509-1540) – Flamboyant decor.

Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage

Fourth Stop – Beauvais

The fourth stop on our cathedral pilgrimage was more of a pause than an extended visit. Rouen was technically our next destination, but we could not pass up the chance to visit Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais since it was on the way. Beauvais’ cathedral has the highest Gothic choir in the world (48.5 meters or 159 ft), and the city was the home of Bishop Cauchon, the diabolical persecutor of Joan of Arc. Beauvais’ history and beauty demanded a visit, and since check-in to our Airbnb in Rouen was scheduled for the late afternoon, we had plenty of time to explore.

Beauvais is less than an hour from Amiens, so we got an early start for our day of exploration. We arrived before noon, and the drive allowed us to experience the region’s small towns and country roads since there was no major highway between the cities. We still had March temperatures, but it was sunny and felt almost like spring. After being in Amiens for a week, the serenity of a smaller city was a welcome change. It was easy to find parking near the Cathedral, and the tourist office was a short walk from the car. We picked up a city map that included a self-guided walking tour which we decided to take before exploring the Cathedral.

At the start of the tour, next to the Cathedral is the former Episcopal Palace of Beauvais, which also houses the Museum of the Oise Department, an art museum. It didn’t appear that the palace was open for visitors, but we could roam the grounds and visit the art museum. The evolution of the palace is nicely documented on the walls of a pavilion, and medieval tombs and architectural fragments decorate the yard. The art museum also has some lovely pieces in its collection.

“The Illumination Lesson” by Auguste Félix Bauer

From the palace, we visited the city’s ancient ramparts and center square, stopping to get a caffeine fix at a lovely cafe, one of the few times we were brave enough to attempt ordering something at a restaurant. Let’s just say we succeeded enough to get un café et un thé. Just off the center square is the Church of Saint-Étienne, once the center of medieval town life and one of the most important parishes in the city. The church’s history goes back to the late 3rd century, but the building dates from the 12th century. Unfortunately, it was closed, but we could enjoy it from the outside.

4th-century ramparts


Saint-Étienne Church

Finally, we made our way to the Cathedral. Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais was never completed having only a choir and transept. The remains of the original cathedral, the 10th century Notre-Dame de la Basse-Oeuvre, sits where the nave would have been built. La Basse-Oeuvre is one of the rare examples in France of late Carolingian architecture still standing.

First Cathedral of Beauvais, the 10th-century Basse-Oeuvre, a rare Carolingian structure.

When we entered the Cathedral, we encountered an inner door that appeared to be locked. I asked a young man in front of us in French if the Cathedral was closed. He didn’t answer, so I repeated myself. He then turned and said, “Speak in English.” Obviously, he was an American and couldn’t speak French, but he lacked the tact to tell me that politely. I asked him the same question in English, but he ignored me and pushed the door open. His rudeness took me aback, but I was a little satisfied with myself that someone else had mistaken me for a French person, but I’m sure an actual French person would not have made that mistake.

Amiens Cathedral is France’s highest complete Gothic cathedral, but Beauvais Cathedral has the highest Gothic choir vaults in the world. Pushing the limits of what was possible at the time led to the collapse of the choir in 1284, just twelve years after its completion. It has since been repaired, but the structure of the Cathedral is vulnerable, as evidenced by the visible reinforcing beams.

Beauvais Cathedral is a marvel, especially its choir, labeled “the Parthenon of French Gothic” by the French architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc.


The enormous proportions of the Cathedral make it famous, but the 13th, 14th, and 16th-century stained glass is among its greatest treasures. However, most of its furniture and prized possessions disappeared during the French Revolution, but a remarkable 19th-century astronomical clock now finds its home in the Cathedral.

Beauvais astronomical clock by Lucien Auguste Vérité

One early 20th-century statue in the Cathedral that enthralled us was “Saint Joan and the Bishop of Beauvais” by Charles Desvergnes. It depicts the contemporary Bishop of Beauvais, Eugène-Stanislas Le Senne, asking Joan to forgive the actions of his predecessor Bishop Cauchon, who relentlessly persecuted the saint during the 15th century.

“Saint Joan and the Bishop of Beauvais” The Bishop of Beauvais asks Joan to forgive the actions of Bishop Cauchon.

We thoroughly enjoyed our short visit to Beauvais, with its magnificent Cathedral and historical delights. Like all of our other stops, one could immerse themselves in this lovely city’s beauty, history, and ambiance for quite some time without exhausting its charm.

Jeanne Hachette Square

Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage

Amiens: A City of History, Art, and Culture

We spent a week in Amiens during our cathedral pilgrimage. Since our trip focused on cathedrals, religious sites, and French history, Amiens gave us a lot of bang for the buck. Of course, the Cathedral drew us here, but it was marvelous exploring the city, too.

Our narrow purpose necessarily kept us from experiencing many of Amiens’ virtues, including its culinary offerings. We wanted to grocery shop like the locals and save money, so we didn’t eat out. Also, we didn’t visit any military battlefields or cemeteries, even though arguably that is a central feature of this region. Perhaps on another visit, we can give the attention those sites deserve, which would undoubtedly humble and inspire us.

One of the reasons we took this particular trip was because we realized how little we knew about the Christian heritage in France. I don’t remember learning about the great Gothic cathedrals in school. Even today, one can get the idea that France was and always has been a secular nation known only as the birthplace of the Enlightenment. Perhaps this says more about my public school education than anything else; however, despite the controversy, France’s Christian history is profound, and Gothic churches densely populate the country, for which I am grateful.

Peter the Hermit, a Roman Catholic priest of Amiens in the 12th century.

Like most of the principal cities of France, Amiens has a Christian heritage going back to antiquity. We stayed in the Saint-Leu quarter, which, along with the eponymous 15th-century church located there, was named after a 7th-century bishop. As the “Venice of the North,” the district is full of canals, quaint half-timbered houses, boutique shops, and inviting restaurants. And the Cathedral is always looming just over the rooftops.

15th-century Church of Saint-Leu. “It has three naves. A flamboyant portal adorns the base of the steeple. The latter, struck by lightning, had to be rebuilt at the beginning of the 16th century. The ends of beams are carved. Stone and wood statues date from the 17th-century.” Wikipedia


We spent a whole day roaming the city’s center, visiting the Picardie Museum, Jules Verne’s house, and monuments. That’s when we met several residents who helped us navigate the city. Their hospitality and kindness left a significant impression on us.

Francis Tattegrain: The Mourners of Etaples


The “House with the Tower” – 19th century mansion where Jules Verne lived from 1882 to 1900.


Jules Verne monument

We loved exploring Amiens, but naturally, the Cathedral was the highlight of our stay.

Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage

Enchanted Chanting

The Cathédrale Notre-Dame d’Amiens is the third of the great cathedrals built in northern France during the thirteenth century (the others being the cathedrals in Reims and Chartres). Besides being the largest Gothic cathedral in France, it has an impressive set of medieval sculptures on its facade and many old polychrome sculptures inside. But the 16th-century choir stalls are one of its great treasures.

The choir stalls are located behind locked gates and are only available to visitors accompanied by a tourist guide. Fortunately, we were admiring the stalls through the bars when one such guide approached to inform us of an upcoming tour. We had a personalized tour of these magnificent wood carvings a few minutes later.

The guide only spoke French, which did not diminish our experience. I tried to get him to use the Google Translate app on my phone in conversation mode, translating on the fly. He couldn’t grasp the concept but tried to speak English phrases during his turn in the conversation. We abandoned that effort and allowed him to explain things in French with English words sprinkled in.

He systematically took us through each side of the choir, explaining the stories engraved in wood on the stalls’ panels. It was relatively easy for us to interpret each vignette or scene because of our familiarity with the Bible and the year and a half of learning French with Duolingo. After a while, a French couple came to the gate, and the tour guide began a personalized tour for them with seemingly great relief while Lisa and I roamed around on our own.


More than four thousand carvings decorate the choir stalls. Like the sculpture inside and outside of the Cathedral, one could spend a significant amount of time studying these images. I photographed the ones that interested us, but I assume they are well-documented online. Regardless, the choir stalls of Amiens Cathedral are a must-see.

Traditionally choir members stood during mass, but these little seats – called “misericords” – allowed them to mercifully prop themselves up without violating church decorum.

Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage

Soaring Vaults and Great Treasures

We planned to make the city and cathedral of Amiens a particular focus for our cathedral pilgrimage. Besides Rouen, we spent the most time exploring here than any other church or place in France. I initially considered spending our whole time exploring Chartres Cathedral, arguably the best-preserved Gothic cathedral in the country. That would have been glorious but limited. We wanted a broad experience of cathedrals and France rather than a focused one.

Amiens and its Cathedral was a good choice for a week-long stay. The 140 feet high vaults of Notre-Dame d’Amiens are the highest of any completed cathedral. Its history, features, and treasures are fascinating and exceptional. And as I shared in a previous post, the city has many historical places and monuments (and we found the residents to be exceedingly friendly – some of the nicest people we met on the trip).

If climbing the towers of Amiens Cathedral raises you closer to the heavens, walking through its portals grants you entrance to them. The rock roof floats high above the ground while Rococo ornamentation dances around you.

With a pilgrimage maze under your feet, the glazed triforium of the apse allows the light to dazzle your eyes.

Like the parade of statues on the exterior of the building, the inside narrative displays of sculpture and quatrefoils are equally full of meaning. Again, Lisa was lost in her study of them while I became a frantic shutterbug attempting to capture digitally what our eyes could barely absorb.

The choir sits behind the bars of a locked gate. What I could make out peering between them was the most ornately carved choir stalls I’ve ever seen. A gentleman saw us looking through the bars dumbstruck and approached us to say a tour was available in 15 minutes. The wait was handsomely rewarded, but more of that next time.

Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage

Amiens Cathedral: Almost Heaven

The scale of Notre-Dame d’Amiens is hard to comprehend, a familiar experience when visiting Gothic cathedrals. Church architecture for medieval people served a didactic function; in other words, the building was a sermon. Approaching and entering such a structure is like accessing Heaven. It is simply impossible not to become transfixed at some level. Even repeat visits can’t quench the transcendent spirit of the church.

The sculpture and reliefs on the facade and interior of Amiens Cathedral were the most intriguing to us (besides those of Chartres Cathedral). They are rich in narrative and symbolism and “may well be the greatest single sculptural display in all of Gothic architecture.”* Like medieval pilgrims, we were caught up in biblical and church history while admiring them. We watched Professor Cook’s lecture and Smarthistory’s video on Amiens Cathedral several times beforehand (Smarthistory also has a companion article about the Cathedral).

We scheduled a week in Amiens so we could repeatedly visit the Cathedral. Each time we returned, something new and marvelous grabbed our attention. Lisa inspected and sketched the quatrefoils and statuary while I took Professor Cook’s advice to study the Cathedral’s features from various perspectives.

Near the beginning of our week-long stay, we chose to climb the towers. It was a little windy, so the woman at the Cathedral’s tourist office had to send a staff member up to ensure it was safe for visitors. Thankfully it was and cost just under €20 for both of us – worth every euro cent.

You enter the south tower through a door just inside the south portal on the western facade. There you climb up a narrow spiral staircase (similar to those in castles) until you reach a passage that takes you outside behind the Gallery of Kings and in front of the rose window. Just wow. I never imagined I would ever be so close to a rose window. We only saw one other couple exploring the towers. We asked them if they would take our photo by the rose window. The man was too scared to return to take the picture, but the woman boldly agreed.

From the rose window, you walk straight toward the north tower and enter a door leading to another spiral staircase up to the highest part of the Cathedral, the pinnacle of the north tower. The scout from the office awaited us at the top. After a mandatory “Bonjour,” we implemented Professor Cook’s recommendation and examined spires, buttresses, and panoramas from every angle possible, ignoring the wind and cold.

The outside of Amiens Cathedral is breathtaking, but the inside is stunning, which I will share in my next post.

*Footnote: The Cathedral Course Guidebook by William R. Cook, Ph.D.

Index of blog posts for our Cathedral Pilgrimage